# Tezos performances and costs

This article and all its data have been taken during the Kathmandu protocol (September 2022) and therefore may be outdated when the next protocol will be launched.

In this article, all performance statistics are given theoretically. All the data are estimates and may change depending on the used contract. If you wish to have access to a more empirical approach, you can read this blog post.

## Estimate Tezos performances (Kathmandu)

At the time of writing:

the gas limit of a block is

**5,200,000 gas units**,the gas limit of an operation is

**1,040,000 gas units**,the block time is

**30 seconds**,the maximum bytes size of an operation is

**~33kB**.

Gas is accounted by an arbitrary unit so that one unit of gas represents one nanosecond of computation performed by the machines used during the benchmark.

### Tez transfer

A single transfer of tez is using **1001 gas units**. On the table below, you can also notice that batching transactions into a single operation doesn’t save up gas compared to perform them separately. The limit size of an operation (33 kB) is reached with a batch of 573 transfers.

Batch size | Gas consummed |
---|---|

1 | 1001 |

10 | 10010 |

100 | 100100 |

573 | 573573 |

For standard tez transfers, we can process the performance of the Tezos blockchain with the following formula:

With the corresponding values, we then have a result of approximately **173 transfers per second**:

The following estimation cost have been made with a tez price of ~1.5€, **tez transaction cost estimation: >0.001€**.
This cost calculation is indicative only. It’s not absolute nor guaranteed, it’s a cost estimate based on figures which are valid at one particular moment.

### FA1.2 transfer

A single transfer of a FA1.2 token is using **2612 gas units**.

With the same logic than for the xtz transfer, we got a result of theoretically **66 FA1.2 transfers per second**:

The following estimation cost have been made with a tez price of ~1.5€, **FA1.2 transaction cost estimation: ~0.001€**.
This cost calculation is indicative only. It’s not absolute nor guaranteed, it’s a cost estimate based on figures which are valid at one particular moment.

### FA2 transfer

One interesting feature of the FA2 standard is the **transfer list** parameter that allows to directly pass to the contract a list of transfers to perform. Unlike batching, this will reduce the gas consumption.

Here is a summary table of the gas used depending on the size of the transfer list:

Transfer list size | Gas consummed |
---|---|

1 | 261 |

10 | 8975 |

100 | 72613 |

300 | 214038 |

650 | 461529 |

650 FA2 transfers can fit in a list before reaching the maximum size on an operation while consuming 461,529 gas units which under the gas limit for an operation. In the end, a block can include 11 operations with a list of 650 transfers plus one operation with a list of 171 transfers resulting in **244 FA2 transfers per second**.

The following estimation cost have been made with a tez price of ~1.5€, **FA2 transaction cost estimation: ~0.001€**.
This cost calculation is indicative only. It’s not absolute nor guaranteed, it’s a cost estimate based on figures which are valid at one particular moment.