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A list of community-run nodes can be found here.

In this chapter, the reader will learn how to install the official tezos-client and tezos-admin-client applications and run them using the Command Line Interface. These commands call on the remote procedures of a Tezos node (local or remote). There are many commands, but we'll see some examples.

Connecting to the network

The tezos-client and Tezos RPC need to connect to a Tezos node. You can connect to your own tezos node, or you can use a community node. In both cases, you can set it for the mainnet or the testnet.

You can find a list of community nodes here.

If you use a testnet, you are going to need free test Tez which you can get here.

Tezos RPC (Remote Procedure Call)

RPC[1] is a client-server protocol where the requesting program is the client and the program providing the service is the server.

Tezos nodes provide a JSON/RPC interface to interact with the Tezos network. Although it uses RPC and is JSON-based, it does not follow the JSON-RPC protocol.

A complete list of calls is available here. Make sure to check the protocol version before you use these calls. The available calls in the Kathmandu protocol (see "History of Amendments" chapter) are here.

RPC examples

GET 'block'

This call returns all the information about a block. But the associated metadata may not be present, it depends on the history mode and block's distance from the head.

GET [node_url]/chains/[chain_id]/blocks/[block_id]

Here is an example, of how to get the block number 1400114 from the mainnet using ECAD Labs node:


To test this call, simply click the address above (or copy-paste it, to open it in your web browser). You'll discover a pretty long JSON object. Depending on the used browser, the visualization may be better (e.g. Firefox will format the appearance to make it easier to read).

GET 'contract storage'

This call accesses the storage of a contract.

GET [node_url]/chains/[chain_id]/blocks/[block_id]/context/contracts/[contract_id]/storage

Example to get the storage of contract KT1Hkg5qeNhfwpKW4fXvq7HGZB9z2EnmCCA9 from block 2766362 on the mainnet using ECAD Labs node:


You can test this call exactly the same way as the "GET block" call.

Tezos-client (CLI)

Tezos-client is a client to interact with a Tezos node via RPC. Let's take a look at the installation and some examples.

How to install the tezos-client

On Mac OS with Homebrew

brew tap serokell/tezos-packaging-stable
brew install tezos-client

On Ubuntu with binaries

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:serokell/tezos && sudo apt-get update
sudo apt install tezos-client -y

On Fedora with binaries

dnf copr enable -y @Serokell/Tezos && dnf update -y
dnf install -y tezos-client

From sources with OPAM

Connection to a node

Below we'll connect to a community node ( on the Ghostnet testnet. We'll use the --endpoint parameter to update the configuration of the Tezos Client on a Ubuntu system:

tezos-client --endpoint config update

The result should look like the lines below:


This is NOT the Tezos Mainnet.

Do NOT use your fundraiser keys on this network.

On Ubuntu, the config file should be written in ~/.tezos-client/config under your home folder. For example after the last command, the all new "config" file look like this:

{ "base_dir": "/Users/username/.tezos-client",
"endpoint": "", "web_port": 8080,
"confirmations": 0 }

Account funding

To get free tez on testnet, you must first have generated a tezos account. If not, you can generate one with the following command:

tezos-client gen keys my_account

You can now retrieve the generated address (the hash of the public key, it starts with tz1, tz2 or tz3) with the command:

tezos-client show address my_account

The result should look like:


This is NOT the Tezos Mainnet.

Do NOT use your fundraiser keys on this network.

Hash: tz1VvyNvPUdypHaTgznTLSkumj9YMZxpmB9p
Public Key: edpkufA6kH6hw4ckZWWmYuLZpfwfXc9abiaEDLqH2iviFXnK9N4oct

You can now go to the testnets website, select your testnet faucet and request tez!

Tezos Client user manual and version

For global options

tezos-client --help

For command options

tezos-client [global options] command --help

For version information

tezos-client --version

On Ubuntu, the result would look like the following:

4ca33194 (2022-08-01 11:55:43 +0200) (14.0)

The full commands' list on Tezos client is available here.

Tezos Client examples

Get balance

Get the balance of an account:

tezos-client get balance for [account_id]

Example with our previously registered user "my_account":

tezos-client get balance for my_account

The response:


This is NOT the Tezos Mainnet.

Do NOT use your fundraiser keys on this network.


The previous response is also a way of checking if the account is activated on the testnet (first transfer).

Get timestamp

Get the UTC of the latest downloaded block. Keep in mind, timezones may differ from your local time:

tezos-client get timestamp

Result example:


This is NOT the Tezos Mainnet.

Do NOT use your fundraiser keys on this network.


List known addresses

This call only lists registered implicit accounts in your Tezos client.

tezos-client list known addresses

Example response:


This is NOT the Tezos Mainnet.

Do NOT use your fundraiser keys on this network.

my_account: tz1VvyNvPUdypHaTgznTLSkumj9YMZxpmB9p (unencrypted sk known)

List known contracts

This call lists all registered accounts, implicit and originated in your Tezos client.

tezos-client list known contracts

Our example:


This is NOT the Tezos Mainnet.

Do NOT use your fundraiser keys on this network.

my_account: tz1VvyNvPUdypHaTgznTLSkumj9YMZxpmB9p

Everything is correct: We don't have any originated account and only one implicit account!

Transfers and receipts

The command below transfers 42 ꜩ from the account user1 to user2 (you can use a Tezos addresses directly):

tezos-client transfer 42 from user1 to user2

Notice that you can specify the maximum fee for this operation appending, "--fee-cap" (defaults to 1.0). The network would determine the actual fee, lower than this cap:

tezos-client transfer 42 from user1 to user2 --fee-cap 0.9

You can also add "--dry-run" or "-D" if you want to test and display the transaction without finalizing it.

For our example, let's generate another account and feed it with tez from the faucet website:

$ tezos-client gen keys my_account_2
$ tezos-client show address my_account_2
Hash: tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3
Public Key: edpktfqbZHfRRSRcJ86hqxQZvgfFMLwR6zMZAXA5UgE81L7WqHt579

Let's verify the balance (and activation):

 tezos-client get balance for my_account_2

Response (without the warning message):


Let's finally try a transfer of 1.5 ꜩ from my_account_2 to my_account with a 0.5 ꜩ fee cap:

tezos-client transfer 1.5 from my_account_2 to my_account --fee-cap 0.5

Response (without the warning message) should be:

Node is bootstrapped.
Estimated storage: no bytes added
Estimated gas: 1000.040 units (will add 0 for safety)
Estimated storage: no bytes added
Operation successfully injected in the node.
Operation hash is 'oocBxnYDf8qiT3EmRFZxR9axGKqEJMxWnFAnzN5Dwz8QFxUe89Z'
Waiting for the operation to be included...
Operation found in block: BLzxBbdk1yq61Z3U36652RBxMM6PMfitA53Rk3xFiZpMX9yQZVa (pass: 3, offset: 0)
This sequence of operations was run:
Manager signed operations:
From: tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3
Fee to the baker: ꜩ0.00036
Expected counter: 12102064
Gas limit: 1000
Storage limit: 0 bytes
Balance updates:
tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3 ... -ꜩ0.00036
payload fees(the block proposer) ....... +ꜩ0.00036
Revelation of manager public key:
Contract: tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3
Key: edpktfqbZHfRRSRcJ86hqxQZvgfFMLwR6zMZAXA5UgE81L7WqHt579
This revelation was successfully applied
Consumed gas: 1000
Manager signed operations:
From: tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3
Fee to the baker: ꜩ0.000258
Expected counter: 12102065
Gas limit: 1001
Storage limit: 0 bytes
Balance updates:
tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3 ... -ꜩ0.000258
payload fees(the block proposer) ....... +ꜩ0.000258
Amount: ꜩ1.5
From: tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3
To: tz1VvyNvPUdypHaTgznTLSkumj9YMZxpmB9p
This transaction was successfully applied
Consumed gas: 1000.040
Balance updates:
tz1M9Snt3Sdcv9YkTrergj3ar6FuQ2g4T9y3 ... -ꜩ1.5
tz1VvyNvPUdypHaTgznTLSkumj9YMZxpmB9p ... +ꜩ1.5

The operation has only been included 0 blocks ago.
We recommend to wait more.
Use command
tezos-client wait for oocBxnYDf8qiT3EmRFZxR9axGKqEJMxWnFAnzN5Dwz8QFxUe89Z to be included --confirmations 1 --branch BLngFFgWJ1TJUgPTp4CLvnyGFzwhKrpcazRFysptBmhZKKH4w94
and/or an external block explorer.

Let's check both balances (testnet warning messages removed):

tezos-client get balance for my_account

tezos-client get balance for my_account_2

Everything is fine.

You can observe your actions on explorers like tzkt or tzstats:

OpenTezos has a dedicated module on how to use an explorer.

Demonstrate ownership of a tz address

To prove that one owns a specific tz address, several options are possible.

Option 1:

Ask the wallet owner to send a transaction to a specific wallet with a specific amount. The risk of this method is that the verification happens on-chain, publicly and it involves transaction fees.

Option 2:

Choosing the data to sign

The tezos-client enables that. Let's prove that an address is indeed the owner of a given address. The first step is to pick the data we want the owner to sign (the choice of the data to be signed is arbitrary). Let's take the ID of an Hic et Nunc NFT, for example: OBJKT#63886, and convert the data to hexadecimal to provide to the tezos-client.

We now need to transform the ID OBJKT#63886 into hexadecimal format. To do so, we can use a website like:, ​ or the following bash script (written in a file, in our case

# content of

echo '0x'"`echo $1 | hexdump -vC | awk 'BEGIN {IFS="\t"} {$1=""; print }' | awk '{sub(/\|.*/,"")}1' | tr -d '\n' | tr -d ' '`" | rev | cut -c 3- | rev


> chmod +x
> ./ OBJKT#63886

Sign the data with the tezos-client

The owner will have to sign the corresponding hexadecimal result with the tezos-client.

> tezos-client sign bytes 0x4f424a4b542332333438 for <OWNER_ADDRESS_ALIAS>

Signature: edsigtmihaqxqsbT5DRM39PaofMD9ibfNQgtVZFAmno1EtmFo8Co51nu9udgsepbSHhZNuntvpSGTCjksF3pssFvmRvPR3msEwi

Verifying the signature

Find the owner's address public key

To be able to verify the owner's signature, you need to retrieve its public key, by:

  • either ask the owner directly if he knows how to find it,

  • or retrieve it yourself from an explorer by looking for the "Reveal key" operation of the owner's address.

Let's retrieve it ourselves on Tzkt:

  • Go to the wallet page (in our case:, and look for one of the first operations called "Reveal key" as in the example below. Once you find it, click on the brackets highlighted on the screenshot below, located at the top right of the page. ​
  • Once you opened the JSON you should be able to see the public key like in the screenshot below




Reveal public key operation

Import the owner's public key on the tezos-client

Import the owner's public key on your tezos-client with the following command:

(We used the ID of the Hic et Nunc object with the "_SIGNER" suffix as an alias to import the SIGNER's public key)

> tezos-client import public key OBJKT#63886_SIGNER unencrypted:edpkutsvRtP75QQaYAfyhyw52u8Rt4ZkuTgfhYSKeVkTEh8bQAZ8er

Verify the signature

The final step is to verify that the signature matches the signer's public key:

> tezos-client check that 0x4f424a4b542332333438 was signed by OBJKT#63886_SIGNER to produce edsigtmihaqxqsbT5DRM39PaofMD9ibfNQgtVZFAmno1EtmFo8Co51nu9udgsepbSHhZNuntvpSGTCjksF3pssFvmRvPR3msEwi

Signature check successful.

Tezos Admin Client

The admin client allows you to interact with the peer-to-peer layer:

  • to check the status of the connections
  • to force connections to known peers
  • to ban/un-ban peers

To use the tezos-admin-client commands, we need a node we can administrate. In the above examples, we learned how to use remote community nodes. Let's now install a local node, we can pretend to be an administrator. This section will also be useful to follow along the Deploy a Node module.

We'll need several prerequisites. Main ones are Docker and Flextesa.

For the demonstration, the installations will take place on a fresh Ubuntu 20.04 (x86_64/amd64 system minimal installation).

Basic programs

To avoid any shortage, install curl and build-essential:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install curl build-essential -y


Ubuntu's official guide here. For other systems please refer to the guides here.

Use the commands to allow APT to use repository over HTTPS

sudo apt update && sudo apt install apt-transport-https ca-certificates gnupg lsb-release -y

Add the Docker's official GPG key

curl -fsSL | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg

Set the stable repository

echo "deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg] $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list > /dev/null

Install Docker Engine

sudo apt update && sudo apt install docker-ce docker-ce-cli -y

Verify Docker installation

The following command test your installation:

sudo docker run hello-world

Modify the system "docker" group

sudo usermod -a -G docker $USER

At this point, please save your work and reboot the system.

Flextesa Tezos Sandbox

Thanks to Docker, the following command integrates Flextesa and will start the Tezos sandbox in the background:

docker run --rm --name my-sandbox --detach -p 20000:20000 \
-e block_time=3 \
"$image" "$script" start

Notice the port number set on 20000. After downloading images, the node should start in the background.

Let's bootstrap our new node and change our connection for it:

tezos-client --endpoint http://localhost:20000 bootstrapped
tezos-client --endpoint http://localhost:20000 config update

The sandbox also set two accounts. You can access their information with the following command:

docker exec my-sandbox $script info

You should get something like the following result:

Usable accounts:

- alice
* edpkvGfYw3LyB1UcCahKQk4rF2tvbMUk8GFiTuMjL75uGXrpvKXhjn
* tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb
* unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq
- bob
* edpkurPsQ8eUApnLUJ9ZPDvu98E8VNj4KtJa1aZr16Cr5ow5VHKnz4
* tz1aSkwEot3L2kmUvcoxzjMomb9mvBNuzFK6
* unencrypted:edsk3RFfvaFaxbHx8BMtEW1rKQcPtDML3LXjNqMNLCzC3wLC1bWbAt

Root path (logs, chain data, etc.): /tmp/mini-box (inside container).

To use them, we need to import them:

tezos-client import secret key alice unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq --force
tezos-client import secret key bob unencrypted:edsk3RFfvaFaxbHx8BMtEW1rKQcPtDML3LXjNqMNLCzC3wLC1bWbAt --force

To check the accounts' activation, let's check their balances:

tezos-client get balance for alice
tezos-client get balance for bob

They should both have 2,000,000 ꜩ.

See The Documenation for more Flextesa examples.

Let's now install the tezos-admin-client application.

How to install the tezos-admin-client

On Mac OS with Homebrew

brew install tezos-admin-client

On Ubuntu with binaries

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:serokell/tezos && sudo apt update && apt install tezos-admin-client -y

On Fedora with binaries

dnf copr enable -y @Serokell/Tezos && dnf update -y
dnf install -y tezos-admin-client

From sources with OPAM

Admin-client use manual and version

Global options

tezos-admin-client --help

Command options

tezos-admin-client [global options] command --help

Version information

tezos-admin-client --version

The complete listing of commands on tezos-admin-client is available here.

We can finally try a few commands on our node.

Admin-client commands examples

Lists remote procedure calls under a given URL prefix

tezos-admin-client rpc list [URL]

In our example:

tezos-admin-client rpc list /chains/main/blocks

Would produce:

Available services:

- GET /chains/main/blocks
Lists block hashes from '<chain>', up to the last checkpoint, sorted
with decreasing fitness. Without arguments it returns the head of the
chain. Optional arguments allow to return the list of predecessors of a
given block or of a set of blocks.
- /chains/main/blocks/<block_id> <dynamic>

Dynamic parameter description:

A block identifier. This is either a block hash in Base58Check
notation, one the predefined aliases: 'genesis', 'head' or a block
level (index in the chain). One might also use 'head~N' or '<hash>~N'
where N is an integer to denote the Nth predecessor of the designated
block.Also, '<hash>+N' denotes the Nth successor of a block.

RPC with the GET method

tezos-admin-client rpc get [url]

In our example, if we want the blocks:

tezos-admin-client rpc get /chains/main/blocks

We get something like:

[ [ "BLXn8BL5mEUj4BMgh6DdSRShdmnVtz1pSVrtgkJ7WAKcXHpLj9H" ] ]

Now, if we'd like to have more details on this particular block:

tezos-admin-client rpc get /chains/main/blocks/BLXn8BL5mEUj4BMgh6DdSRShdmnVtz1pSVrtgkJ7WAKcXHpLj9H

As a result, we obtain a long JSON descriptive object:

{ "protocol": "PsFLorenaUUuikDWvMDr6fGBRG8kt3e3D3fHoXK1j1BFRxeSH4i",
"chain_id": "NetXfpUfwJdBox9",
"hash": "BLXn8BL5mEUj4BMgh6DdSRShdmnVtz1pSVrtgkJ7WAKcXHpLj9H",
{ "level": 393, "proto": 1,
"predecessor": "BKu6mYuq2XHEM6RWGUZezodwMe32FLPECB6jF9xBQgHwedwXZkV",
"timestamp": "2021-05-25T15:28:42Z", "validation_pass": 4,
"fitness": [ "01", "0000000000000188" ],
"context": "CoUtK2oqBmhT4iR4ahpDyK1ZQetnUrqKCGSeKMD13hpwaP63oYxT",
"priority": 0, "proof_of_work_nonce": "756e6b6e00000000",
"sigg9EpfsEkHCQuHMvc9Bx5DbF3w9msCXkY4C5P4DE54coPZQrA53ACY62Mzq7V5hM1nRgGVdxXhhPNTcsy4Qwe61fiLDPYr" },
{ "protocol": "PsFLorenaUUuikDWvMDr6fGBRG8kt3e3D3fHoXK1j1BFRxeSH4i",
"next_protocol": "PsFLorenaUUuikDWvMDr6fGBRG8kt3e3D3fHoXK1j1BFRxeSH4i",
"test_chain_status": { "status": "not_running" },
"max_operations_ttl": 60, "max_operation_data_length": 32768,
"max_block_header_length": 238,
[ { "max_size": 4194304, "max_op": 2048 }, { "max_size": 32768 },
{ "max_size": 135168, "max_op": 132 }, { "max_size": 524288 } ],
"baker": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU",
{ "level": 393, "level_position": 392, "cycle": 49,
"cycle_position": 0, "voting_period": 24,
"voting_period_position": 8, "expected_commitment": false },
{ "level": 393, "level_position": 392, "cycle": 49,
"cycle_position": 0, "expected_commitment": false },
"voting_period_kind": "proposal",
{ "voting_period":
{ "index": 24, "kind": "proposal", "start_position": 384 },
"position": 8, "remaining": 7 }, "nonce_hash": null,
"consumed_gas": "0", "deactivated": [],
[ { "kind": "contract",
"contract": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU",
"change": "-512000000", "origin": "block" },
{ "kind": "freezer", "category": "deposits",
"delegate": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU", "cycle": 49,
"change": "512000000", "origin": "block" },
{ "kind": "freezer", "category": "rewards",
"delegate": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU", "cycle": 49,
"change": "40000000", "origin": "block" } ] },
[ [ { "protocol": "PsFLorenaUUuikDWvMDr6fGBRG8kt3e3D3fHoXK1j1BFRxeSH4i",
"chain_id": "NetXfpUfwJdBox9",
"hash": "oo2TDxCHBoYXVkzaxJZPXuAA9o27QzA8RRdw6YYuaUv1hxeurjU",
"branch": "BKu6mYuq2XHEM6RWGUZezodwMe32FLPECB6jF9xBQgHwedwXZkV",
[ { "kind": "endorsement_with_slot",
{ "branch":
"operations": { "kind": "endorsement", "level": 392 },
"sigVdHfmCxmj9z7WxvwPEiA9mnGZk5k2RNfyaj6z7nBoX7UusUMCtyZDC4bCbKGg557BCr2T41cB4SCpytQyJqxKAukgV6NL" },
"slot": 0,
{ "balance_updates":
[ { "kind": "contract",
"contract": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU",
"change": "-2048000000", "origin": "block" },
{ "kind": "freezer", "category": "deposits",
"delegate": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU",
"cycle": 48, "change": "2048000000",
"origin": "block" },
{ "kind": "freezer", "category": "rewards",
"delegate": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU",
"cycle": 48, "change": "40000000",
"origin": "block" } ],
"delegate": "tz1YPSCGWXwBdTncK2aCctSZAXWvGsGwVJqU",
[ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,
29, 30, 31 ] } } ] } ], [], [], [] ] }

Listing protocols known by the node

tezos-admin-client list protocols

Example result:


Usefull command to debug a node that is not syncing

tezos-admin-client p2p stat

Though, in our case with the single local node, the result is not very interesting:

0 B (0 B/s)0 B (0 B/s)

What we have learned so far

In this chapter, we saw how to install the CLI. We also introduced you to simple remote procedure calls for a Tezos node. Along the way, we understood how to connect to a remote community node or to a local node using a sandbox.

In the next chapter, we will learn in detail how Tezos allows on-chain decentralized governance without reliyng on the problematic hard forks.